Thursday, March 15, 2018
MY PhD THESIS: RADICALIZATION OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
An understanding of science and development of class room teaching behaviour accordingly are possible with a training of 4 weeks in groups of not more than 10 participants. A teacher educator (trainer) can manage with a group of 30 to 40 participants. Nottingham University, UK, NG7 2RD. A thesis by Dev Bahadur Dongol. my email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Thursday, October 6, 2011
This work outlined the problems to be investigated and set in the context of Nepal. Both an understanding of the problems and of the context are thought to be necessary to appreciate the goals of the development of a training programme for training teachers as a complete programme.
Indeed, since the problem is concerned with training, adoption and implementation, it is vital that the problem is seen in its context.
The heart of the problem is how to develop the teaching competencies of science teachers within the culture of Nepal as demanded by the rationales for teaching. In developing these competencies one has to consider not only the methods of training but also procedures for motoring the training, the retention of the newly developed competencies and their use in schools.
As it can be seen from this work the focus upon teaching competencies provides a strategy for developing (or at least contributing to the qualitative improvement of) science education in Nepal. Indeed the paradigm (model / criterion) for successful educational implementation in developing countries has been shown to rest on the capabilities and motivations of teachers who are themselves a product of their culture. Hence the focus in this work is on the development of teaching competencies of science teachers within the context of Nepal. The concentration of this work is on educational technology. The key feature of the educational technology here is not hard ware, equipment and materials. It is directed towards thinking systematically about the needs and resources available in our country, then planning an appropriate training procedure and strategy, and suggesting ways of implementing it. The point is not just reading about it for verbal transformation of ideas but to do by actually going in the field to work and demonstrate for the development and implementation of an innovation in the context of a given country (Nepal).
This training programme as an innovation may not be perfect and complete. But it should provide enough information and appropriate procedure to develop confidence in teacher educators to begin with. The training programme definitely gives an idea to form a foundation, which is the first platform for a shift towards quality education in our country.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 10:00 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
Many available literature shows that the teaching learning situation and related elements of education in Nepal are content rote memory oriented, as in other developing countries. Such methods have been claimed or explained ineffective by observers and researchers on the basis of rationales for teaching. The poor examination results confirm this assertion. There is also a serious shortage of science teachers, which has further intensified the ineffective science teaching-learning situation in Nepal.
The existence of such a situation (in Nepal) is attributed primarily to the reason that the people concerned especially teachers are not aware of the philosophical modern view of science. There is also deep-rooted cultural impact of rote learning. They have not been able to incorporate the classroom teaching learning activities as recommended by education technologists, practising teaching specialists, or as demanded by the rationales for (science) teaching and teaching learning principles.
This study at its heart has the notion that the understanding of the modern philosophical view of science (education), is the first step for the foundation of learning process of problem solving, reasoning etc. The concept of education in a given society is reflected in the classroom teaching learning behaviour. The shift from rote learning to problem solving is considered essential for quality education. This has to be seen as classroom teaching learning behaviour. The change is possible through a training program focused on it. Thus a programme for popularising modern view of (science) education, scientific understanding and development of teaching skills and abilities as demanded by the rationales for teaching is needed in such a place where teaching learning situation is similar to that of Nepal.
One of the practical means to popularise science can be through schools by training teachers enabling them to organise effective teaching learning situation in the classroom. So a training programme of such an objective is needed to have developed. Teachers need such a training anyway. The assumption is that classroom teaching reflects teacher's understanding of rationales for teaching thus, his view of educational philosophy.
In this study a training programme is proposed, designed and evaluated in the course of its development. The training programme includes training procedure, training course, and a classroom teaching observation tool and evaluation system. It provides suggestions for adoption and implementation of the training programme with its possible implications. The training is based on the modern view of science and the rationales for science teaching. It is focused upon the minimum requirements for teaching science (in Nepal). They are, knowledge and practical activities for text-book contents, use of locally available resources and basic theoretical aspects of science education. The procedure of the training programme consists of a general introduction, demonstration teaching, and discussion for group decision and actual training for practice teaching phases. The complete training may be counted for 150 hrs when all requirements are fulfilled.
Three case studies and a follow up visit of one case study were done during this research. The findings of this study have provided the evidence that the developed training programme can change classroom-teaching behaviours of science teachers from rote memory oriented to student-centred approaches as required by the rationales for (science) teaching. It can also develop the understanding of the modern view of science and rationales for science teaching in science teachers of Nepal.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:59 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
Radicalization of Science Education in Nepal
(Development of a training programme as an innovation)
(A Study in Education Technology)
List of tables
2. Statement of the problem.
3. Base situation.
4. A proposition- a discussion.
5. Minimum requirements.
6. The goals of the research.
7. Usefulness in Nepal.
9. Sequence of the development.
11. Main structure of the proposed and developed training programme as an Innovation.
II. Nepal: Background Information.
2. General information - physical, political, economy, religion and infrastructure.
3. Education system - school level education, higher education, administrative organisation.
4. Teacher education in Nepal - a. a brief history. b. Training programmes - teacher educator training, short duration training, correspondence courses, on the spot training, Dhankuta seminars and current programmes c. Training procedures.
5. Science teaching in Nepal - teaching methods, resource materials and equipment, examination, physical facilities, teacher training, text books, concept of science, curriculum development, teaching load, student numbers etc.
6. Problems and constraints - the root.
III. Review of Literature.
b. Related to Teaching.
1. Modern view of science.
2. Changing concept of science.
3. Importance of knowing the concept of science.
4. Implications of science teaching to other subjects.
5. Methods of teaching - underlying principles.
8. Teaching learning principles.
9. Behavioural objectives.
10. Materials in teaching.
11. Lesson planning.
12. Piaget’s theory.
13. Teacher’s effectiveness.
14. Teacher’s key role.
15. Base situation in developing countries.
c. Related to the Teaching Observations and Evaluation.
1. Indirect - the questionnaire, interview, informal.
2. Direct - the sign system, the rating system, the category system. (The inter-observers’ agreement)
d. Related to the Characteristics of a Training Programme as an Innovation.
1. Guidelines for the Development of a Training Programme as an Innovation.
2. The Proposed Training Programme - Training Procedure: PPP- Preparation – Planning Practising teaching and teaching observation.
3. Implementation Procedure, Means and Media, Meaning of Education Technology.
IV. Description of the Training Programme as an Innovation.
The technique incorporated / adopted - PPP (preparation, planning and practising teaching and teaching observation) - experiences of each activity are shared by a group of teachers, the repetition of the same activity is minimised, thus doing as many varieties of activities as possible -the actual practising the teaching.
V. Analysis of the Innovation. Explanation of how the characteristics demanded by the education technologists are fulfilled.
VI. Methodology. The pre-test - the training - the post test. (If the standard to have attained is set or defined, the pre-test and post-test comparison is not essential. It is better to fix the desired standard and try to achieve that standard).
VII. Data Analysis and Findings.
VIII. Conclusion/ Discussions/ and Recommendations.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:58 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
This section provides an outline of the problem studied in this work/ thesis, some background information and main hypotheses. Each section of the introduction is related to a section of different chapters of the thesis. The number referred in the brackets refers to the chapter and section of the thesis.
1.2 Statement of the problem
This study was directed towards the development of and evaluation of an intensive (short) (one month) duration training programme for Nepalese science teachers. The programme was based upon the basic competencies essential for science teachers (1.4). It was designed to help them to teach more effectively, that is, base their teaching upon modern view of science (3.2) and as demanded by the rationales for science teaching (3.5)
a. This study has assumed that classroom teaching behaviours reflect the general concept of science in a given education system.
b. That the teachers apply the techniques learned from this training program.
1.4 Sequence of development
Informal evidence indicated strongly that training programme procedure as described in the case studies of this thesis, was likely to be effective and that they could change classroom teaching behaviours in the direction of the suggestions made by the teaching specialists. Training sessions basically with similar approach were conducted in different parts of Nepal (Mali 1981, Bhatta 1974, Singh 1984) by the ‘Thirteen Teacher Educators’, specially trained for conducting in-service training in different districts of Nepal (2.3). The investigator was one of them.
Because the training procedure seemed effective the investigator adopted the basic structure of the training programme on different occasion to conduct the training programme and based the procedure for this Ph.D. works as well.
Form Sand et al (1984):
“Mr. Dongol, in Nepal after first part of his Ph. D. Work in the UK, acted as a tutor through out the seminar. …. Mr. Dongol made valuable contributions on educational theory, methodology, and support for teaching practice. His lesson planning session included practical work and apparatus construction, and he was as planned, able to combine his tutorial work with some work on his Ph.D. topic, ..”(p.7)
The training procedure was incorporated in the Dhankuta seminars because of the investigator’s involvement (Sands and Carre 19181; Sand and Kershaw 1983; Sands et al).
The investigator has been interested to develop it into a complete training package programme so that trainees would not require to repeat the training for the same purpose, mainly because the investigator found the training procedure was effective. Experiences developed confidence in him that it could be improved making it feasible to the situation of Nepal. Sands and Waddington (1979) mention his work along the line as follows:
“.. in particular the laboratory of Mr. Dev bahadur Dongol and colleagues, in which lively and interesting work is going on with Diploma students. In this laboratory science equipment has been made from cheap local materials: porter’s baskets were fastened together to make storage racks, or used to teach number; balances, telephones, pinhole camera’s and much other materials had been made from discarded or cheap materials; bottles were cut to make beakers or measuring cylinder and many good ideas were being put into practice. Mr. Dongol himself is very keen to be involved in all aspects of teacher education and he has a number of ideas for teacher training, some outlined in two papers written by him” (p.18 and ref.7).
From Sands and Carre’ (1981):
“Mr. Dongol pioneered this type of in-service training program, and the development of low cost materials, while he was at the Pokhara Campus (see section 3.3 of the report, Sands and Waddington, 1979) and brings intimate knowledge of the teachers as well as years of experience to the task (p.8)”.
“Mr. Dongol was extremely effective. Before the seminar he helped with the preliminary organisation by corresponding with MKS, and visiting the British Council in Kathmandu to liase with Roger Wilkins. He also visited Dhankuta for 4 days with Mr. Chiranjibi Sharma from the ministry of education, and arrived the seminar place itself 3 days before the UK tutors arrived. On both these occasions he organised materials, discussed with head teachers and science teachers, and other personnel in Dhankuta, and taught science classes in the lower secondary school in order to get to know children before we exposed them to the participants. When we arrived in Dhankuta we found that a great deal of ground work had been done.”
From Sands and Kershaw (1983):
"Mr. Dongol’s considerable expertise, commitment and effectiveness were commented fully in last year’s report ... he made a preliminary 3 day visit to Dhankuta in November to discuss arrangements with the staff at the ERC and the schools, and he ran the 2 week advance seminar in December with the 8 group leaders."
During the seminar he not only participated fully in the teaching and saw day to day organisation, but before and through out the course he was much involved with problems associated with the participants’ welfare: their sleeping arrangements, washing
facilities, sanitation, food and so on. He ensured that -as far as possible - any such problems were rapidly resolved.
Both BRITISH Tutors agree that without Mr. Dongol the seminar could not have been so successful.” (P.5)
Here the investigator must say that those previous experiences were based upon observations using best of his common sense and his grasp of the rationales for science teaching, but without the knowledge about the theories, principle and views of educational technology on the development and evaluation of a training programme as an innovation. Those opportunities provided practical background to the investigator to base this study.
So the training programme outlined in chapter IV is the result of the previous experiences the readings during this Ph.D. course and three case studies and a follow up visit of one of them (chapter VI) done in Nepal.
1.5 Base situation regarding science teaching in Nepal.
The teaching learning situation in Nepal has been shown to be ineffective (2.4). It is rote-memory oriented. The textbooks, curriculum development, examinations, teacher training and teaching methods are all directed for content rote-memorisation. Memorisation equates the learning.
The understanding of theory, principle/ philosophy of science among teachers in particular is not in accordance with the modern view of science and rationales for science teaching (2.4)
1.6 A proposition - a discussion
The base situation as indicated in section 1.2 above is probably due to two reasons. Firstly, there is the existence of deep tradition of rote learning in Nepalese culture. Secondly, the modern view of science (3.2) is not understood. The science education is rote-memory oriented because the prevalent notion about science in Nepal is likewise. As result, the teaching learning situation in Nepal does not reflect the principles of the teaching and learning recommended by teaching specialists for effective teaching learning classroom management. Teaching technologists seem to agree that an understanding of the modern view of science is essential for the adoption or application of effective teaching learning activities (3.5). Thus a programme for popularising or diffusing the modern view of science (can prove to be) useful for the development of science education in Nepal as well. This was so thought for developing countries as well, and at the foundation level in Nepal and in all places where similar base situation prevails.
(It is thought that) one of the practical approaches for dissemination of modern view of science is through schools by changing classroom-teaching behaviours of (science) teachers accordingly (2.5). Besides, a course as training activities, some methods of evaluation of teaching is also helpful.
The tool has to be in synergy with rationales for science teaching. At the same time, it should meet other criteria as an evaluation tool such as validity, reliability, unbiased, standard language, and above all helpful to improve teaching as demanded by the rationales for science teaching. The evaluation of classroom teaching behaviours for this purpose can probably be done best by using the Category System (3.17).
In a situation such as that exists in Nepal, the starting point to bring about educational changes for improving science education seem possible only through the popularisation of philosophical bases of science and rationales for teaching and learning. The best utilisation of the available resources as they are available seems to be the only best approach. Indeed it may be argued that the only practical way is to work through schools and involve (science) teachers as change agents by improving their classroom teaching behaviours as demanded by the rationales for teaching. Teachers require training anyway for the purpose. They do rote-oriented teaching because of the tradition of teaching and because they lack the understanding of the nature of science (as explained by the teaching specialists). It seems no other reasons can explain existence of such a situation. This is not possible by giving training to top personnel or ministers (they also have the same tradition view or understanding).
Thus a short intensive training programme focused around the minimum requirements, the actual works teachers have to do while teaching, could prove to be the most efficient way of providing training to teachers. The change of classroom teaching behaviours of teachers as demanded by the rationales for (science) teaching, thus popularisation of philosophical bases of science is a must for qualitative improvement of education.
Educationists agree in principle that teachers are the backbone of an education system (3.19). Any education system grows
with and through the changes of capabilities of teachers (3.19). So teachers must be prepared for this challenge.
They should know how to have done teaching confidently. Through reflecting rationales for teaching in their teaching styles
they should help to find ways of improving and developing
education system suitable for their own country qualitatively (Brown and Donald 1981, Bennett 1980, Riaz 1983).
1.7 Basic Minimum requirements
The minimum requirements of (science )teacher for teaching can be stated as follow (3.1)
1. Knowledge of contents of textbooks (curriculum) from which teachers have to teach.
2. Related experiments and activities from textbooks.
3. Skills and abilities to use local resources
4. Skills and abilities to use suitable and feasible teaching methods in their own prevalent situation (communication skills).
5. Some basic related educational theories.
1.8 Goals of Research
The main goal of this research was to devise, try out, and evaluate a training programme, which could be used or implemented to develop student centred teaching behaviours in (Nepalese science) teachers in shortest possible periods of time.
In the process of developing the training procedure/ program this study focused on:
- Identification of basic science teaching activities that can be adopted for teaching (science) in Nepal.
- Identification of the essential contents for the training program (1.4, 3.1, chapter IV)
- Developing or working out training procedures and structure including model lesson (with various practical activities as examples based on local resources chapter IV, 4.7) to exemplify the teaching methods - the communication skills through demonstration teaching.
- Estimating shortest possible duration for the training programme chapter IV)
- Using and evaluating the classroom teaching recording system, the Activity Category System Instrument (developed by Harrie E. Caldwel (3.17)
- Suggesting the implementation procedure for the training programme (5.2, 9.2)
- Identifying and analysing the barriers for change, locally and nationally, and suggesting ways of overcoming those barriers (5.2, 9.1, and 9.2)
1.8 The usefulness in Nepal
The investigator believes that this research work should be particularly useful if implemented through the new science education project funded by the Asian bank and proposed by the British council team (Young et al) in which the investigator was also involved (2.3). One of the two major parts of the project involves the setting up of 25 SEDUs (Science Education Development Units) across the country. This type of short-term in-service course the investigator has developed can be given to science teachers from the surrounding districts (which are 75 in Nepal) during and after the lifetime of the project.
The work the investigator has outlined, it is hoped, will form the basis for the nation-wide training of the science teachers.
The study was started with the following hypotheses:
At the end of the training the teaching behaviours of the participating teachers would be student centred. That is, according to the tool ACI (6.3) the Activity Ratio would be equal to one or more than one.
The percentage of time spent on student centred activities by teachers while teaching would be 50% or more at the end of the training.
There would be a significant difference in the percentage of time spent on student-centred activities, and on Activity Ratio between data of the following groups:
- The pre-test and post-test of each of the following different groups for which the training was conducted, (i.e. the Dhankuta and Lalitpur groups).
The post tests results would be significantly better than the pre-test values.
- The post-tests of this study and the data from Pfau (1977) (Nepal grade 9, Nepal grade 5, and US grade 5).
The post-test values would be significantly better than Pfau’s (1977) results.
- The pre-tests and the US grade 5 from Pfau (1977).
The US grade 5 would be significantly be higher than the pre-test values.
There would no significant difference between the teaching behaviours i.e. percentage of time spent on student-centred activities and on activity ratio between the following groups:
- Pre-test of this study and data on Nepal 5 and Nepal 9 from Pfau(1977).
1.10 The main structure of the training programme
The description of the developed training programme is in chapter IV and analysis of its characteristics based on theories is described in chapter V. The entire background knowledge of theories on the basis of literature is given in the chapter III. The main structure of the training procedure is as follows:
I. Acquaintance Phase
In this phase participants are introduced to the training programme and discussed the problems and constraints related to science teaching in Nepal.
II. Exemplification Phase
Demonstration teaching followed by discussions are done by trainers during this phase to exemplify ways of overcoming or solving some of the problems discussed in Phase I.
III. Discussion for Group Decision
A discussion is done to enable the group to take a group decision about the training on the basis of the previous two phases i and ii.
IV. Actual training - the Practice Teaching Phase (clinically supervised lesson approach)
The rest of the training period, about three weeks, is spent on training activities as demonstrated and discussed in previous three phases to provide practices to participants. It consists of preparation, planning, teaching and observations, and discussions on teaching and training sessions.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:57 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
CHAPTER II: BASE SITUATION
a.Educational Base Situation in Developing Countries
The educational base situation in Nepal is similar to the situation of developing countries as described by many educationists. The rote memory oriented situation is also prevalent in many countries of the developing world.
" ..teachers fall back on the very narrow subject content they remember from their own school days. It consists of little but completely mechanical drill on the 3R's and the memorization relatively meaningless symbols occupies most of the time .. . memorization is all important." (pp. 58/59 and 72)
Freire (1982) takes the analysis even further. He lists 10 characteristics of schooling in developing countries as follows:
“The teacher teaches and the students are taught.
The teacher knows everything and students know nothing.
The teacher thinks about and the students are thought about.
The teacher talks and the students listen meekly.
The teachers discipline and the students are disciplined.
The teacher chooses and enforces his choice and the students comply.
The teacher acts and the students illusion of acting through the action of the teacher.
The teacher chooses the programme content and the students (who are not consulted) adopt it.
The teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own personal authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students.
The teacher is the subject of learning process, while the students are mere objects.” (pp. 46-47)
He also states that:
"His (The teacher) tasks is to 'fill' the students with the contents of the narration-contents which are detached from reality, disconnected from the reality … the more completely he fills the receptacles, the better a teacher is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better the students they are." (pp. 46/47)
He further says,
"Education thus becomes an act of depository, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiqués and make deposits which the students potentially receive, memorize and repeat. This is the 'banking' concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filling, and storing the deposits. They do, it is true, have the opportunity become collectors or cataloguers of the things they store. But in the last analysis, it is men themselves who are filled away through the lack of creating, transformation, and knowledge in this (at best) misguided system. For, apart from inquiry, apart from praxis, men can not be true human." (p.45)
"In many developing countries today, one of the most commonly stated objectives for science education is the 'development of valid understanding of the nature of science. There is general belief that for one reason or other, the students and perhaps teachers held inadequate conceptions of science. Weaver (1964), Abubakar (1969), Bajah (1975), Cole (1975), and several others have reached the conclusion that the manner in which science is taught or learned does not adequately reflect the nature of science” (P.25)
Sund and Trowbridge (1973):
"Teachers have traditionally emphasized the product of science rather than the process of science. This has been done because teachers have not had a good understanding of the philosophical bases and process of science". (p.22)
Keith Warren in Overseas Challenge, part 28, has expressed:
"Unhappily, most of the world's teachers do not at present teach children the approach to real science, if by real science we mean the activity that goes on at the fore front of the search for knowledge." (p.1)
The above quotations summarize the essential message about the educational base situation in the developing countries.
b. Base Situation in Nepal
The related components of science education in Nepal is content rote - memorization oriented. Most of the points described here are discussed by many educationists such as Singh (1984), Mali (1978), 81, Young et al (1982), Reed and Reed (1968), Bennett (1980), Dongol (1981), Pfau (1977), Trowbridge (1974), Ingle and Turner (1982), Sands and Waddington (1979) etc.
i. Teaching Methods
The prevalent methods of teaching in Nepal are dominated by teachers' lectures and explaining. Students are supposed to memorize contents from textbooks.
The teaching is didactic, authoritarian and not re-enforced by the use of simple learning aids. It equates memorization with learning. In all subjects there is very little participation with class or pupil involvement. The main classroom activity is teacher talk. Science lessons differ very little from lessons in other subjects. Although the subject matter to be learned from textbook is intended to be supported by demonstrations in some cases, these are rarely done. (Young et al 1982).
Reed and Reed (1968):
‘The attainment of national aspirations through education in Nepal is being daily deterred by the ineffective teaching learning procedures of the nation's classrooms. Teaching methods at all levels emphasize oral performance. Especially in primary and secondary schools, there is a great deal of chanting of responses to the teacher's cross-examination rote-memory oriented questions. Rote learning and memorization are prized. There is heavy reliance on lecturing with note taking even in primary years. The same limited material is repeated day after day until firmly imbedded in the pupil's memory. At all levels of education, teachers consider the class a homogenous group. There is no recognition of individual differences in ability, home background or interests..'
'Teachers tend to follow faithfully the government syllabus, which lists the concepts to be covered in each subject and at each grade level. But seldom are these concepts considered as problems to be understood, illustrated, discussed, taken part and synthesized.. p.10'
Bennett (1980) puts this way:
'In observing classroom teaching in schools I find it difficult to identify which teachers are or have been trained and which have not, as almost all use lecture, and rote memorization methods, referring to the text books.' P.7
'There is very little practical training at the teacher training campuses, even teaching techniques and methodologies are taught by the usual lecture methods.' P.13)
Pfau (1977) in his doctoral thesis which discussed the cross national classroom teaching behaviours, wrote:
'The survey conducted revealed that Nepalese classes were dominated by teacher talk and teacher ideas. In the classes observed, teachers mostly lectured and asked short narrow questions which are usually followed by short and relatively predictable students' responses. Student did not express their own ideas and opinion in their own words very frequently, teachers made very little use of students ideas.
Few students' activities were observed to occur, other than speaking (mostly in response to questions), some reading and writing and solving mathematical problems. Virtually no group works was observed, nor were field trips, work with reference materials, students reports given to the class, or (except for two schools) laboratory experience in science.
Nepalese teachers also made little use of audio-visual aids, expect perhaps for the black board.
In short, the teaching observed and described confirmed to what many educators would consider to be traditional teacher dominated classes, consisting of mostly 'chalk and talk' interspersed with periods of recitation' p.136)
Jha and Kafley (1980):
'The classroom teaching behaviour of bachelor level practice teaching teachers-students in class is direct and mostly content-oriented. The Institute of Education should consider refining the ways of instruction or even the curriculum, to produce teachers who will work more as coordinators of learning among students.' P.21)
Thus we see there has been very little changes or improvement in classroom teaching behaviours of Nepalese science teachers.
ii. Resource materials and science equipment:
Because of the economy and geographical difficulties, resource materials other than indigenous ones are not available. Only printed material is textbook. (and of course, the natural resources of the region which are invaluable for learning science). There are even places where textbooks are not available. Some basic materials such as curriculum guide, teaching units etc. distributed from curriculum centre are never seen being used. The teachers do not use them because they limit their teaching and learning to textbooks.
Reed and reed (1968):
'Many Nepalese schools lack the most elementary materials. The teacher may posses the only book, or at best there may be one textbook for each two or three students. Blackboards are rare in hill schools, as are writing materials in general. The furnishing of basic educational materials for primary schools would seem to be a matter in which a little effort and expenditure would result in great improvement in Nepalese education.' P.23)
The use of scientific equipment is probably not within the capabilities of many teachers. Nepal has tried in the past 30 years to supply materials especially during early 1970's when the National Education System Plan was implemented and now under secondary education project. Now it is that they are not used where they are available and most of the equipment is left untouched. Teaches are not yet ready for the use of sophisticated equipment (Young et al 1982)
'In science lessons there are few demonstrations. Class practical work is rare. Although the text-book work is intended to support by demonstrations, and some suggestions are included in books, even the best teachers have only limited idea of ways in which practical work can be done and equipment utilized. Many opportunities for both practical work of a simple nature are therefore missed, even by qualified and trained teachers.' P.9)
There is also a concept that science requires only imported fancy materials. Singh (1984) puts the idea this way:
'At present, science is presented in the texts as requiring and being concerned with equipment and materials which are not found frequently in Nepal and have been imported.' P.iii)
Even available materials are problems as teachers are not capable of using them. The physical facilities of schools are not available for storing equipment and materials (NSSP 1982, Reed and Reed 1968).
The examination also requires only rote memorization of subject matter knowledge (Young et al 1982, Reed and Reed 1968, Singh 1984, Mali 1981).
Reed and Reed (1968):
'These examinations, both local and national, measure the student's memory of subject matter content. Any broader educational objectives are ignored in the construction of examinations.' P.143)
iv. Physical facilities
Because the main teaching method is lecturing by teachers and method of learning in class is listening by students, the classroom has been a place to gather rather than a place to learn actively. The school is a set of classrooms where students can sit, often crowded conditions, to listen to teachers. Subject classroom with necessary educational materials is rare. No facilities for storing equipment or materials are available. In many villages, schools are merely symbols. Classes are run in the open air. Teaching stops when weather does not permit open-air classes (NSSP 1982, Reed and Reed 1968, Mali 1978, Singh 1984). Hence some methods of teaching science, which take account of the situation, must be developed. And more importantly, teachers should be introduced to methods of teaching science which require teachers to know what has to be done in teaching science and thus change in physical facilities to facilitate learning and show how to obtain those facilities.
v. Teacher Training
This has already been discussed above under (i.) earlier. Here the investigator would like to quote some of the views of different educationists who have observed science teaching in Nepal.
'There is little practical training at teacher training campuses, even teaching techniques and methodologies are taught by the usual lecture method (Bennett 1980, p.7)
'The principal mode of campus teaching is by means of lecturing to large groups of students, unsupported by much in the way of demonstration or visual materials (NSSP 1982, p.18)
'The practical and the theory teaching which the potential science teachers get is, therefore, formal, lacking in variety with no real consideration of the needs of the schools .. the use of low cost indigenous materials in place of normal laboratory wares is rarely considered (ibid.).'
'it concentrates too much on academic aspects which are of little relevance to the real problems teachers face in the classroom (Singh 1984, p.111)'.
‘At present approximately 50% of IOE curricula is devoted to teaching academic subject matter, or theoretical concepts of dubious value. There is no need to waste the valuable teacher training time on such subject matter. If considered absolutely essential this academic subject matter could be imparted through correspondence courses (Bennett 1980, p.17).'
So at the end of the teacher training degree course at campuses of Institute of Education, the graduates or teachers find they have acquired little skills about teaching methods.
Textbooks are almost wholly descriptions of subject matter content. Few texts contain problems or activities. Students memorize the texts. Even textbooks which focussed on student's learning activities are rewritten to memorization style (e.g. grade VII textbook, though regarded for being the best book at that time). And even questions are memorized instead of answering or trying to answer them.
vii. Concept of Science
For many westerners the concept of science is concerned with experiment, investigation and discovery. In Nepal science is conceived of as a rote memorization task. This conception permeates the textbooks, the examinations, the teaching skills and even the physical facilities provided for teaching science. The notion that equipment and materials are essential for teaching science is not adopted in the teaching learning classes nor the notion of a classroom where students can actively learn and develop their talents.
The process of science is not yet understood (Reed and Reed 1968, Young et al). Many science-teaching specialists agree on this view.
Young et al (1982) in Secondary Science education project (NSSP 1982):
"The teaching of science in Nepal's schools is similar to the teaching of other subjects. It tends to be didactic, authoritarian teacher oriented-centred, unrelieved by the use of simple teaching or learning aids and equates memorization with learning." (p.9)
viii. Curriculum Development
The curriculum development centre conducts curriculum development in Nepal. Teachers from different parts of the country meet to discuss and plan new curriculum. However these discussions are almost always based upon the assumptions that teaching is lecturing and memorization is learning. Further more no systematic attempts at developing, field testing and evaluating curriculum materials by people or teachers who practice the teaching as demanded by the rationales of teaching is possible to have undertaken. No use is made of the well-known ‘Development and Dissemination’ approach (Havelock 1973). This requires a group of experts working along the line of the philosophical bases of science teaching.
Comments such as the following describe the situation accurately.
Mr. Singh (1984):
"Science courses at all level mainly consists of the more traditional physical and biological science content with a theoretical bias. Such subject matter is not relevant to the needs of the majority of pupils because it fails to give insight into student's own lives and information on which they can act and link to a background of applied rather than academics ones." (p.110)
Such a situation was true even in 1968. Reed and Reed (1969) quoted this way:
"The subject area given most attention in our school, colleges and Universities is language. The abstract studies are dominant, not the concrete, " (p.101)
Yet teachers who understand the nature of science and the modern approach to science teaching could contribute substantially to reform of science education in Nepal, science learned should have highly applicable characters. Contents also need to be chosen so that they have applications in day to day life situation.
ix. Teachers and teaching
In Nepal most of the science teachers are untrained and some are even under qualified (Singh 1984, p.111).
"At present. Nepalese teachers are not, in general, trained in science teaching. They understand neither the concepts of science nor techniques for transmission of the scientific knowledge to students (Reed and Reed 1968, p. 11)"
The so-called trained teachers also are in the similar situation. So it has confused a lot about the training value in Nepal. It appears the change in teaching behaviours has not been significant since 1968, but the opportunities for education has increased tremendously.
The low quality and quantity of students joining places for teacher training is further evidence of the low status of the teaching profession. Faculty members at the college of education agree that the average academic record of students entering the programs of the college is significantly lower than students going into most of Nepal's other well established Institutions of higher education (Reed and Reed 1968, Singh 1984, Mali 1978). This shortage of teachers is even worse in science and mathematics. It is further worsened because most students after the training do not become teachers after completing the education courses. Furthermore, Nepal can not fulfil its present demand for trained teachers by the existing degree programmes (Singh 1984, Dongol 1978, 1980, Bhatta 1975). The programmes' capacity can not be increased to the extent that the need may be satisfied in the near future because of the lack of the resources. Even if more teacher training centres are opened the teacher educators are not available. At the same time there is need to change the teaching behaviors of the trainers as well. There is another problem. Teacher educators do not like to work in remote places. But most of them do not mind to go for few days or weeks. Topographical as well as economic conditions of Nepal do not permit for repeated short courses for in-service teachers, like meeting every day, once a week or once a month or even once a year for most of the teachers. It is not practical.
So the teacher training colleges or government of Nepal requires thinking of a complementary approach. So that, the existing programmes can be improved as well as multiplied the rate of teacher training at least to satisfy the immediate demands of the country for the minimum areas but of direct application in the class room. The requirements have to be listed. One way of doing this can be by conducting some related courses of degree programmes separately. The courses that are relevant to the minimum basic skills and immediate needs can be achieved in shortest period of time. Thus the training can be a part of the degree course and accredited for the completion of the degrees related.
x. Teaching load
Normally teachers have to run classes throughout a day totaling 33 periods per week (5 full days and one half day on Fridays). Because teaches are doing lectures they get tired. They do not have enough breaks in between periods. But rest is essential. So, they teach for shorter time than allocated for periods. In this way the teachers as well as students lose interest.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:56 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
CHAPTER III REVIEW a. science TEACHING
1.Teachers Key Role
The process of implementation of educational programs includes many components such as curriculum development, production of educational materials, teacher training program, administrative organization, test development, execution of examinations etc. They are all meant for making the classroom teaching learning situation effective. Implementation can be successful only when teachers are ready to organize the learning experiences for students and use of educational materials that are appropriate for respective curriculum they have to teach (Lewin 1951, Tisher et al 1972). This key role of teachers in the implementation of educational programs has a great significance (Gagne 1972). The greater the teachers are competent the greater is the chance of success of educational programs. There is no doubt that education keeps on improving as teacher's competencies increases. Beeby (1966) has said that education evolves with the capabilities of teachers. Bennett (1980) explicitly expresses the point in the context of Nepal in his article 'Reform of education for rural transformation':
"If the teacher is not competent, no matter how relevant the curriculum, how well designed the materials, how effective the administrative system, how effective the financial mechanism, how schools are supplied with materials, and how eager the community is to be involved; the education will be of poor quality, and the objectives of reform will not be met".
"However, if the teacher is competent, creative and committed, the school can be effective even if the curriculum and administration are poor, there are almost no materials or equipment etc. a good teacher can provide a good education, even if the system is inherently weak. A bad teacher can in no way provide good education even in the best of the system (p.11).
Beeby (1979) has said as follows:
"Qualitative changes in classroom practice will occur only when teachers understand them, feel secure with them, and accept them as their own (p.289)". Beeby (1979
But there are also some misleading statements in the literature on implementation:
Adams and Bjork (1969)'
"A further word of caution should be introduced. Educators tend to assume that improving teachers will improve teaching, and conversely that instruction can be improved only by better teachers. In the light of advances in educational technology, this view should be examined critically. Certainly, educating better teachers must always remain an important goal; but in the absence of professional, self-directed teachers, such aids as nationally prepared syllabi, laboratory materials, and programmed lessons can significantly improve instruction (p.125)".
Such a statement is misleading and has been proved to be wrong in even the educational attempts of the last 30 years in Nepal. Who will handle the materials supplied in the absence of able teachers is the question that arises. Educational materials itself can not provide skills that teachers need for organizing classroom teaching learning situation with reasonable effectiveness. But competent teachers can modify and elaborate the facilities available to suite the situation and they can also develop or construct educational materials.
Whitehead (1929) in Gurrey (1963) says: 'Everything depends on the teachers (p.1)".
Gagney (1977) also believes that:
"Besides the student who is learning, the most important agent in an educational program is the teacher. It is the teacher's job to see that the various influences surrounding the student are selected and arranged to promote learning (p.2)"
"In playing this role, the teachers design situations that require the student to demonstrate what he has learned.
The proper structuring of the learning environment to ensure that students achieve objectives is a demanding activity which is critically dependent upon knowledge learning process (p.4)".
Ward expressed such an idea of teacher’s key role as far back as 1959 as follows:
"The Cambridge conference of 1952, discussing the curriculum, agreed that the main, both primary and secondary schools, was not so much a series of specially devised syllabuses as 'livelier and fresher approach to teaching. … but the main responsibility must still be with the teacher. A bad syllabus in the hands of a good teacher will produce better results than a good syllabus in the hands of bad teacher. By all means let us overhaul our syllabuses and write the textbooks to suite them; but our main effort must be to develop what Cambridge conference calls a 'livelier and fresher approach to teaching. More teachers and better teachers are what the schools chiefly need (p.77)."
Esler (1977) also has expressed similar view/ confidence.
Again from Beeby (1966) showing the dependency on teachers for achieving the goals of education.
'…as the investigator has already suggested, these goals are dependent on what teachers in the schools are capable of accomplishing (p.14)".
"A relevant principle to be drawn from "hypothesis of stages is that, for teachers, if not for educational philosophers, the goals of education are emergent, in the sense that they must be within the range of teacher's capabilities, and will evolve as those capabilities expand. The more clearly the teachers can be made to see the immediate goals, the more likely they are to make their own, eventually approach them and then see other goals beyond them. To set a goal that is too distant may only be to confuse an adequately prepared teachers, but on the other hand, a temporary goal that is too easily achieved tends to become an end in itself, and constant pressure is necessary to keep the system on the move. One of the ways is to encourage the liveliest and ablest of the teachers constantly to experiment and break new grounds (p.17)".
On basis of educational wastage Beeby (1966) further makes the point as follows:
"We have even less hard evidence on the causes of this wastage than we have on its extent, but experienced educators who know these areas seem to agree that poor teaching must take a large portion of the blame. Poverty, ill health, irregular attendance, parental apathy, and the demand for the child labor are doubtless all contributing causes, but both parents and children will be willing to make sacrifices for good education that would not contemplate (look at / regard) for a schooling that only leads to boredom and stagnation. In fact, poor teaching is major cause of wastage of this magnitude, there does seem to be ample room for planning some reform of the primary schools without running too soon into the difficulties caused by sophisticated disagreement on the concept of quality. There may still be differences of opinion on such policy issues as the extension of primary education or its closer adaptation to life on the land, by one means or another, to achieve more effectively the modest schoolmaster's aims they already profess."
Baez (1976) puts the importance on teacher like this:
"The involvement of teachers in the creative or adaptation phase is important. The eventual success or failure on the materials produced by the project depends on whether in the actual classroom situation the teachers are willing and able to use the new materials …one way to achieve this, if they were not involved in their development, is to give special courses to the teachers so that they feel at home with new approaches and materials in the right way. Teacher training is therefore of vital importance. But I also pleading here for more direct involvement by at least some of the teachers in the creative process and that takes place when the new materials are first being dreamt up (p93)."
The involvement of the teachers as in the developmental process of the program can be adopted during the training phase as well.
Here this investigator would like to emphasize the point further that the teacher involved should have an understanding of the rationales for science teaching so that they can develop ideas and learning opportunities for their students. The teacher training based on the rationales for science teaching is very necessary. The emphasis should be given more to teacher training than to the dissemination of materials and syllabi (Gurrey 1963, Byram in Gooding et al 1983, Maybury 1975, Tisher et al 1972), as Ward (1959) observed (to reiterate):
"A bad syllabus in the hands of a good teacher will produce better results than a good syllabus in the hands of bad teachers." (p.77)
(Anyway those aspects can be incorporated during the implementation of the training program as well)
So a teacher training to popularize science education especially in a situation like in Nepal becomes seriously important to form the basis for the development of science education.
2. Rationales for teaching
Given the nature of science there are some activities which are expected in classroom teaching. In the simplest term there are some sort of direct experiences providing opportunities to learn, help indirectly by teachers through questioning, directions, discussions etc. Students should get a chance to think and apply knowledge and skills learned thereby involving them in higher level of mental works as much as possible in practical sense. For example, interpreting, applying, analysing, synthesising etc. are important aspects of mental abilities. ( Kubli 1983, Caldwell 1968, Gagne 1977, Sund and Trowbridge 1973, Driver 1983, Esler 1977, Dongol 1979, Victor 1975, Romey 1968, Carin and Sund 1970). Therefore, the students should be engaged in doing experiments, making materials whenever possible, conducting projects, doing demonstrations, reporting and explaining, asking questions etc. On the other hand, teachers must be able to assist students in learning by providing minimum of help through demonstrations, questioning, directions etc. rather than always telling and doing works for them. The goal is to encourage them to think on their own so that students have the opportunities to learn by themselves in their own way. It is possible to identify the basic activities recommended by educationists for a better teaching learning situation. In general it can be said that the students must have the opportunities to do all possible learning activities which can help them to learn subject matter knowledge and develop talents useful for the rest of the life. Activities done by the students independently for learning are called student-centred activities. The rationales behind the philosophy is that they encourage students to think critically and independently to enquire and investigate systematically, to assist data and evidence to reason, to develop and understand concept, to engage in the world around them and transform it. It gives students freedom from oppression, be responsible for their own learning and the opportunities to find their own preferred style of learning.
3. Teaching learning principle
There are some principles which can be applied for making teaching learning situation effective as claimed by the rationales of teaching / learning. In other words, there are some beliefs that are acceptable to teaching specialists. As for example, the practical way of learning or by actually doing is more interesting and thus more effective than by learning through lectures and rote memorisation. Varieties of experiences or examples develop confidence in the learners around the areas of lesson learned. The students must have opportunities to do, to think, to express, to organise, to plan and so on. Activities that involve more of the senses are less tiring. One can work longer if work involves observation, writing, construction, movement, touching, hearing, tasting, thinking, verification etc. Teachers should be able to distinguish the learning theme which students can discover themselves under teacher's guidance and lessons for which they should be told. A teacher could be learning while teaching, particularly when one comes across unfamiliar aspect of the lesson, though the teacher has to master the subject matter and plan the ways of teaching lessons.
A list of generalisations as teaching and learning principles is given here. They are adopted from Sund and Trowbridge 1973, pp.27/28. Similar views are also expressed by many other educationists such as Victor 1975, Esler 1977, Driver 1983, Carin and Sund 1970, Eggleston et al 1976, Kubil 1983 etc.
a. Principle of Learning
1. Students learn best by being actively involved. If they can do an experiment themselves rather than read about it, they will learn better.
2. Positive reinforcement is more likely to result in student's learning than negative reinforcement. A teacher who compliments and encourages the students is more likely to obtain higher achievement than who tells them their work is poor or derides them for poor achievement. Threat or punishment may cause avoidance tendencies in the student, preventing learning. Some failure can best be tolerated by providing a backlog of successful experiences.
3. A situation with fresh and stimulating experiences is a kind of reward that enhances learning.
4. Learning is transferred to the extent the learner sees possibilities for transfer and has opportunities to apply his knowledge.
5. Meaningful material is easiest learned and best retained.
6. Learning is enhanced by a wide variety of experiences that are organised around purposes accepted by students. Teach in depth. Do not try to cover the book. Cover what you can do well, giving opportunities for students to have many experiences with the subjects.
7. The learner is always learning other things than what a teacher is teaching. A teacher may have a student heat a chemical solution to get a precipitate. The teacher is teaching a chemical process. But students are also learning the laboratory skills and how to organise the equipment, be efficient in the laboratory, and work with others. None of these is likely to be tested in an examination.
8. Learning is increased when provided in a rich and varied environment. The richer the classroom, laboratory, and school surroundings in offering opportunities for learning, the greater the level of achievement. A bear and uninteresting room offers little stimulation for learning.
9. Detail must be placed into a structured pattern or it is rapidly forgotten.
10. Learning from reading is increased if time is spent on recalling what has been read (recall helping activities) rather than rereading.
b. Teaching principles
1. Planned teaching results in more learning.
2. Students tend to achieve in ways they are tested. If you test only for facts, they tend to memorise only facts.
3. Students learn more effectively if they know the objectives and are shown how to gain these ends. Science teachers should spend time discussing the purposes of doing experiments by enquiry and processes used in solving problems.
4. The teacher's function in the learning process is one of the guidance, guiding individuals to reach an objective. She creates an atmosphere for learning.
5. Pupils learn from one another. Working in-groups in laboratory or other suitable works can enhance learning. It should be such that they have opportunities to share ideas and discuss each other about the works they are doing when they feel necessary.
6. When an understanding of detail of any theory or apparatus is determined by the whole, then the comprehension of that part must wait until the whole is understood. A teacher does not teach about the histology of the body until a student knows about the general anatomy of the body.
c. Objectives of science teaching
The well accepted view of science among the science educationists and scientists has to be reflected in teaching learning situation not only in classrooms but wherever teaching learning occur to justify learning as science. It is also discussed by many science educators that science learning involves contents or knowledge, the process of learning the knowledge and the reasons why the process in science is very important. During the process of learning science many activities occur. They are lectures, questioning, experiments, projects, field trips, demonstrations, work book exercises etc. These activities have to be chosen appropriately for lessons for the situation a lesson has to be taught or learned.
Model no. 1
when the educational materials are available for all students
Lesson : Pendulum
concepts or facts:
Time of oscillation of a pendulum depends upon its length but not on amplitude and the types of materials used as weight.
Behavioural objectives the students will be able to:
Perform experiment, draw facts and concepts from the experiment, describe the experiments in written.
Materials: a piece of string (about 2 metres), some pieces of rock of different size, rate of own pulse, self-made scale, self made graph paper.
First the students must find the pulse rate. Two students are required to do the experiment using pulse rate as the timer. Stop watch can be used if it is available. The reading of lesson from the text, writing questions, and the collection of materials are assigned as home work in earlier days. This helps to get prepared before hand.
In the beginning of the class, a discussion can be carried out to find out any difficulties students have about the lesson. After the discussion, the students are asked to carry out the experiment using their own materials they have brought. Some times diligent students may have finished the experiment at home, such students can be used to look after other students during the class.
While students are doing Their works independently, the teacher watches the students works, go around the class, ask questions and give directions helping to carry out the experiment if any difficulties or confusion are noticed, but still maintaining the originality of the students’ works.
Note: This type of experiments can be conducted in groups as well. This type of works does not require special skill or pre-cautions. Group work can be better because the students will have opportunities to discuss with each other.Home works: to continue the similar work using other types of materials as weights
Model no. 2
Lesson : Electromagnet
concepts or facts:
A magnetic substance (nail) becomes magnet when electricity is passed around it through an insulated wire.
Behavioural objectives: the students will be able to:
I. make an electromagnet with simple indigenous materials
II. describe the experiment with sketches.
Materials: nails, cigarette foils, batteries, iron dust if possible, pins, needles and thread.(Battery is expensive but if it is for classroom purposes only, will not be costly, because it could last as long as 1 year. It is possible to manage with only one battery.)
preparation: Cigarette foils collected by students can be cut to suitable breadth (1 cm) and length. Folding can be done in such a way so that shining aluminium side of the foil is closed inside and the paper pasted is exposed outside. It is possible to make it suitable to wrap around a nail as an insulated wire. There are some cigarette foils that do not conduct electricity, so a test for the purpose is essential. The aluminium of the two ends of the foil is exposed to connect to the two terminals of a battery. While the foil is connected to the battery the current flows around the nail and behaves as a magnet. It attracts pin, iron dust, or needles. It is wise to fasten wrapped cigarette foils at the two ends of the nail by thread. It makes sure that the wrapped cigarette foil does not get loose by unwinding off the nail.
teacher’s work: It is essential to show to the students how the construction or making of the electromagnet by this method is done. Let the students follow the process step by step. After having done the making They can test it turn by turn using the same battery, if batteries can not be provided to all of the students. In the mean time students are testing the electromagnet they have made, they may be asked to write down the works they have done, simultaneously, walk around the classroom, see students doing works, see their testing, writing, drawing etc.. and help them mostly by questioning.
Home works: to make electromagnet using other types of materials
Model lesson 4
lesson * Kepler*s first law of planetary motion
Facts*concepts* Planets go around the Sun in elliptical path. The Sun remaining at one of the foci of the ellipse
Materials* a drawing on a large card board paper which reflects Kepler*s first law of planetary motion around the Sun.
Preparation* making of the chart as said above.
Students will be able to:
I. Interpret the chart showing the Kepler*s first law of the planetary motion around the Sun in one’s own words.
II. Make own chart or model reflecting the first law.
Teaching* The students are to be suggested to study the chart carefully with necessary help to understand the chart. They are required to express the law in their own words. The correct expression will ensure that the students have understood the law.
Teacher*s work* going around the class. Help students by questioning. And, at the same time see the works done by the students. Also help them for correction if required.
Home works* make models or charts using varieties of materials that are possible around their locality to represent the law.
Teaching module no. 5/6
Some lessons can be taught better by teacher’s demonstration than by students doing experimental activities individually or in groups.
Lesson * Archimedes* Principle
concepts or facts
An object immersed in water looses its weight apparently equal to the weight of the water displaced by it.
Students will be able to:
1. Prove the Archimedes* principle using domestic materials
2. discover it through an experimentation
3. express it in words
4. describe the experiment with necessary sketches
rubber band, two pieces of thread * 30 cm each*, a small container which can hold water displaced by the piece of rock immersed in water during experiment, a piece of rock, water in a vessel in which the rock can be immersed in water.
Construction and experimentation
1. Fix up the materials as shown in the diagram
Join the materials to hang in order of thread, rubber band, thread, container, and rock at the end of the thread.
before drowning the rock in water
2. First measure the length of the of the rubber band.
3. Mark the level of water in the vessel.
After drowning the piece of rock in water of the vessel taken
4. The piece of the rock should not touch any side of the vessel but immersed completely in water.
5. Measure the length of the rubber band keeping the rock freely immersed in water.
6. Mark the level of water, this will show the amount of displaced water in the vessel.
7. Take out the displaced water and put it in the container hung above, still keeping the piece of the rock inside water.
8. Again measure the length of the rubber band while the rock is in water and displaced water is in the container.
Let one or two students do the experiment under teacher*s guidance at the demonstration table from fixing materials to experimentation. In order to help them understand and explain what happened in the experiment just let them describe the work done and ask questions where it is necessary to draw their attention at the proper step. A series of questions may be asked by using one of the following two techniques.
Questions like, what happened*, why the water level was raised *, why the rubber band became longer or shorter *, how much weight had to be added to make the length of the rubber band equal to the length before drowning the rock in water *, what is the relationship between loss in weight of the rock while in water and the displaced water * can be asked.
note* of course the teacher has to be tactical while asking questions as it depends on the answer given by the students. Teacher must be able to ask leading questions considering each answer given for each of the questions asked. So string of questions will be different for different groups of students.
If the students are able for higher level of mental works the following approach can be adopted. Students also formulate some hypothesis on their own or they may be asked to think of some assumptions and ask questions on the basis of their observations. Encourage students to ask only such questions which can be answered by *yes* or *no* only. But teacher should not ask such questions as far as possible unless it is absolutely necessary or no other questions can be formulated. Such questions can be answered without thinking or they can be answered by rote learning without any understanding. But formulating such questions require thinking assumptions. Students can go on asking questions until they are able to explain the Archimedes* principle or the experimentation they are doing.
Teacher can go around the class checking students* works.
Let them design different ways of doing the experiment. This experiment can be done at least by 8 different ways using indigenous materials. Let them invent.
Model lesson no. 7
When only textbooks are available or do not need other than written text.
Lesson* any theoretical lesson
Facts and concepts * not any particular
Students will be able to:
I. read the lesson for comprehension
II. formulate questions
III. answer questions in written
Let the students read the lesson silently. Students are to be told to make questions from the part they do not understand as well as from the areas they
do understand. This much of the study may be done as home assignment. This activity may be done for about 50% percent of the
class period. After this reading a question answer discussion *competition is to be organised among groups of students.
They should also make drawings whenever required or and possible. Teacher should also ask questions when it is felt essential.
are given only when students can not answer by themselves.
Homework* do reading similarly for theoretical lessons.
Model lesson 8
As a first lesson on Microscope handling
A microscope is an instrument that you have to learn by actually handling it. But this is not available in our school for all pupils to handle in a single sitting. So it is necessary to organise the class in such a way so that all students get chance to handle it . So in this lesson I am trying to show how we can conduct the class in order to give opportunity to the entire student to handle the microscope.
Facts and concepts: not applicable.
Students will be able to:
1. Focus a specimen under a microscope
2. Draw a microscope showing different parts of the microscope
One compound microscope, a labeled large drawing of the microscope including the process of handling it, one slide with specimens etc.
First of all, I demonstrate with a microscope to show them its parts and their function and the procedure to handle it and revise this with the help of two charts - one, showing the parts of the microscope and second, showing the steps of handling. I also show them the preparation of a simple microscopic slide e.g. peeling off the ventral side of a leaf to observe stomata under the microscope. After this, the class has to go with two types of activities simultaneously. One, the whole class of students is engaged in drawing and writing the steps of handling a microscope. Second, a group of students 5 or 6 can come over at the demonstration place to prepare slide and observe the slide under the microscope. This being the first lesson on the microscope handling the grouping has to be such that each student gets chance at least to focus the specimen under the microscope.
Home works: preparing write up of the microscope handling
Model no. 9
Exhibition also can be a very convenient teaching technique when it is difficult to carry educational materials form classroom to classroom and from one corner to another, and when the students are crowded so no practical works are possible in the classroom
Lesson: educational material of all lessons
4.1 Topics related to science teaching
If one thinks about what a teacher should know to become a science teacher any person would agree that a science teacher at least must know the objectives of science teaching, the content knowledge of the course one has to teach, and the methods of teaching science to use to teach the contents to achieve the objectives of science. Books on science teaching like Summers (1982), Sapianchai 1982, Carin and Sund 1970, Victor 1975m Tisher et al 1972, Esler 1977, Sund and Trowbridge 1973 , etc. include topics from these areas. The writer himself being a science teacher educator and has been teaching courses related to science teaching for over 25 years he is very much aware of these areas. Courses taught at colleges also include these areas.
Caldwel 1968 recommends:
"1. Teachers should be presented with the philosophy of contemporary science education and the rationales for using indirect activities. The presentation may be written, verbal or both.
2. Teachers should have the opportunity to discuss the philosophy of contemporary science education and the rationales of science teaching for using indirect activities." (p. 38)
These areas can be classified into three main areas (Victor 1975). The teacher must be equally familiar with philosophy, contents, and the techniques of science teaching in the elementary school. So the writer presents the following list of contents related to science teaching for the training programme followed by their explanations.
a. modern view of the nature of science
b. rationale for science teaching
c. selected contents of science lesson from textb00k
d. methods of teaching science suitable to prevalent situation.
e. Questioning (introduction and distinction of rote learning/ memory and thinking types).
f. Introduction to behavioral objectives
g. Introduction to the most basic aspect of Piaget's theory of cognitive development of human
h. Lesson planning format
i. Science activities and experiments using indigenous materials
j. A discussion on the nature of children based on general experiences as as Victor 1975 says:
"if the science programme in the elementary school is to be effective, the teacher must be aware of and utilize what research tell us about characteristics of the child. Knowing and understanding what philosophy says about children will do much to make the teaching and learning of science profitable and rewarding experience for both teacher and children" (p. 32)
4.2. Explaining the modern view of science
The modern view of science
There is no short definition science. But its characteristics that are acceptable to educationists can be explained. In education it is not thought enough to recite some of the scientific knowledge only. Science is not limited to knowledge only. One may be learning different kinds of knowledge that are not known in other parts of the world but still one can be learning science. So science is not determined by the kind of knowledge or subject matter. In learning a part of knowledge the process of learning is also important. There are different ways of learning lesson. For example, let us take the lesson on flower. It is possible to rote memorize some characteristics about a flower by just reciting what teacher says or what is written in books. The modern view of science has gone beyond this notion. It says that the students must learn the methods of studying the flower. The method of studying a flower helps to develop skills and abilities such as describing, observing, sketching etc. So that the students can become able to study another flower by themselves independently. Thus it becomes quite clear that a science lesson should be learned in such a way that a learner learns knowledge by developing necessary skills and talents. Therefore, it can be said that science is a process of learning knowledge by developing desired skills and abilities and attitudes.
For example Sund and Trowbridge 1973:
"the philosophical basis of science is distinguished by its approach to the discovery of knowledge" (p/22)
"science is a continuous process of seeking new knowledge, new explanations and deeper understanding" (p. 17)
"science, then is a dynamic process, a search for the "best" answer to any question concerned with the world around us. What science is not is a set of facts. Those who work with science know that what is fact to-day is questioned tomorrow, and often ridiculed as non-sense a year from now. As teachers we must help our students as quest, not as an acquisition, as an on going enterprise, not as a finished task." (p.12)
Aldous Huxley in Sun and Trowbridge 1973:
"one of the great achievements of science is to have developed a method which works almost independently to the people whom it is operated on,"(p.1)
Sund and Trowbridge 1973:
"the key to whether a body of knowledge could be included under the heading of science if it was discovered by the scientific method. If our awareness of a phenomenon is determined by use of such scientific process as observation, measurements, experimentation and other operations included in the scientific methods, it is scientific information .. the product of scientific investigation is scientific knowledge .. but science is more the just knowledge. 9P.2)
"science is a process without a subject." P.100)
Hurd 1971 makes the point sharper by drawing a line that merely teaching biology, chemistry, or physics does not necessarily mean teaching science as follows:
". one scientist described the situation this way: high school teachers are so busy teaching biology, chemistry and physics that they forgot to teach science of their subjects." (p.13)
The above statements suggest that subject as such can not be considered as science and indicate that in the definition of science that has to be fulfilled is the process or method of learning. In Nepal, however, this is not the case.
The meaning of the term 'science' in Nepal
So far the writer has presented the process of science as described by western writers. But the meaning of science to a particular group of people is, to some extent, based on local beliefs and language. In Nepalese language the equivalent word for science is 'bigyan' meaning 'pure knowledge' literally. Its meaning implies that knowledge may be pure and whole or impure and incomplete. An important point in discussion with science teachers of Nepal is the nature of science. For example ',"magnets attract iron and other magnetic substances". This is a knowledge statement. Would it be 'pure' knowledge if some one merely memorized it and never saw a magnet or a magnet attracting a piece of iron?. Alternately, would the knowledge be 'pure' if it is experienced by a learner who actually experimented with magnet and touched magnetic substances with it and thus came to his own conclusions. If we had to choose, we would say that the first rote-memorization approach does not provide experience for 'pure' knowledge as actual phenomenon described. In the second approach, the learner also learns the general approach / process of finding out the knowledge. The involvement in the learning process provides the opportunities to develop different skills and talents as well.
Thus science becomes a process of learning knowledge by developing skills and abilities and other objectives of science teaching. Although it is both knowledge and process (Carin and Sund 1970, Kulson and Stone 1968) - the determining factor for the nature of science is the process (Sund and Trowbridge 1973) not types of facilities, materials, content of knowledge.
4.3. Changing concept of science education
The modern concept of science evolved in the western world can be found in Uzzels's 1978 ' the changing aims of science teaching', Strike and Poisner's 1982 'conceptual change and science teaching' and Victor 1975 'science in America'.
Science teaching in the UK was started as far as 1840's and in The USA in 1860's. Victor has written:
'the third NSSE (National society for the study of education) year book (published in 1960) expressed its awareness of the increasing dependence of society on science .. .. it is added "problem-solving and critical thinking" to it list of objectives, and it stressed the importance of teaching science as a process." (p.4)
Then by launching different science programmes the USA ushered a new era in science education. Some such changes seem to have affected the UK (Uzzel 1978). With similar objectives Nuffield Science Projects were started in the UK. Gould 1983 indicated that the objectives of science were to bring changes in the main three main areas: syllabus content, methods of teaching science, and means of assessment: all guided by modern view of science.
"our attempt to develop a more contemporary experimental and inquiring attitude In teaching and learning has demanded not only consideration of what is taught (although this is obviously important) but much more of how the teaching should be conducted.
Essentially, the project sought to encourage a more scientific, experimental study of biology through the method of guided discovery." (p.201)
Uzzel 1978 writes:
"the last twenty years have seen the most rapid and radical changes in science curricula and the approach to science teaching. .. the intellectual demands of what is taught have increased for rote-learning in the nineteenth century to the sophisticated abilities and attitudes expected in recent years." (p.19)
it seems the teaching -learning of science in Nepal is comparable to the very early stage of science teaching in the USA and UK. The rote-learning of science goes back to the third quarter of the last century or the beginning of science teaching in those countries.
Topic: clinically supervised practice teaching.
This session is conducted after demonstration teaching session of various methods while teaching different lessons are completed. The participating teachers were also supervised at their own schools. They have shown some understanding of teaching as demanded by the rationales of science teaching. So it is thought that it is prime time conduct clinically supervised practice teaching is organized so that sharing of ideas are at maximum. This is the third phase of the training programme.
Demonstration teaching will or should have done by all of the participants as thought by the teacher educator must be done. Each participant may require doing teaching more than once.
It is expected after the completion of this session the participants will achieved the following skills.
1. Demonstrate various teaching methods.
2. Observe and record class room teaching activities as they occur during demonstration teaching.
3. Discuss the classroom teaching performance on the basis of rationales of science teaching.
4. Evaluate classroom teaching performance on the basis of rationales of teaching.
Lesson plans and educational materials as required by the following lessons that are chosen for the practice teaching sessions.
1. Theoretical lessons for demonstration of reading comprehension method.
3. Circuit – lighting a bulb.
4. Solar eclipses
5. Lunar eclipse.
6. Introduction of microscope and stomata.
Method: Demonstration teaching
One participant teaches a class of school students.
The teacher educator leads a discussion after the demonstration teaching.
Together with the participants the teacher educator note down the activities occurred during teaching as they occur.
Feed back: demonstration teaching.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:55 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
Chapter III d Characteristics as an innovation
Chapter III d
Characteristics as an innovation
The effectiveness of a training programme may be analysed and evaluated on the basis of the theories formulated by teaching specialists. There are certain criteria determined by the educational technologists. Those characteristics need to be considered in designing an effective training programme as an innovation, otherwise, they can not be considered as an effective innovation. Those theories and principles are stronger than the statistical analysis. They are more convincing than statistical supports.
Education technologists (Havelock and Havelock 1973, Warren 1978, Jung 1970, Havelock and Huberman 1977, Nisbet and Watt 1978, Mathias and Rutherford 1983, Berg and Ostegreen 1977, 1979, Rogers 1965, Doll 1974, Chambers and Powney 1982, Baldwin et al 1982, Havelock 1975, Beeby 1979, Vivian 1977, Aleydeino and Hawes 1971) have discussed many criteria. Only some of the characteristics are described here.
1. Compatibility 2. Structure 3. Relevancy 4. Divisibility 5. Duplicability 6. Linkage
7. Synergy 8. Ownership 9. Simplicity
It is important that the innovation is compatible with the existing education system so that a change in the system itself does not become a necessity to implement the innovation. If a change in the existing system is essential the programme may not be demonstrable. It seems the best way is to start an innovation with a new approach for teaching existing courses of a programme. This training programme is basically a new process for teaching existing courses.
The proposed training programme is structured and it has a sequence as well. Certainly as an innovation a training programme must be structured with a logical sequence.
Of course, a proposed programme needs to be relevant. The relevancy can be considered in relation to working procedure involved in teaching, courses taught currently, actual prevalent situation, available resources, etc. Those factors can be taken care in this programme.
This programme is divided into four phases. The preceding phases may be conducted independently. In other words the first phase is followed by the second phase, the second phases can not be conducted without doing the first phase and so on. The divisibility is in sequential order. This nature allows the training programme to have done in phases giving time span between phases.
The programme can be conducted in any existing situation similar to that of Nepal. No place is conceived where this programme may not be duplicated. This characteristic makes easy implementation of the programme
Since the proposed training programme is for training around some courses taught in teacher training degree programmes, linkage can be established with degree programmes. This is helpful for teachers to complete some of the requirements of the degree courses at their doorsteps. Thus, there is more possibility of earning degrees by the participants.
This programme is specifically designed for developing classroom teaching behaviour as demanded by the rationales of teaching and learning. So training activities are chosen in such a way so that they are always aimed at the main objective. The instructor will have to draw the attention of the trainee participants about the purpose of the training again and again whenever opportunity permits in relations to the activities being done. All activities have to be in synergy with the rationales for science teaching and learning principles.
It is also equally important that the participating trainees feel the training programme their own and is also being conducted for them. For this purpose they should be involved from the very beginning in making decision to go to the next step or phase. This should give them the feeling of ownership. This characteristic also can be taken care during training programme. The instructor adopting this programme must be very much aware of this factor.
The simpler the process the better it is understood. Known materials, relevant working procedure, familiar situation etc. are some of the aspects that makes the training simple.
Posted by Dev Bahadur Dongol at 9:54 PM No comments:
Share to Twitter
Share to Facebook
Share to Pinterest
Older Posts Home
Subscribe to: Posts (Atom)
▼ 2011 (8) ▼ October (8) PREFACE
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER II: BASE SITUATION
CHAPTER III REVIEW a. science TEACHING
Chapter III d Characteristics as an innovation
Chapter IIIc: Evaluating Classroom Teaching
My photo Dev Bahadur Dongol I eaRNED Ph.D. from Nottingham University(1986) as science teacher educator.View my complete profile
Simple theme. Powered by Blogger.
Wednesday, July 15, 2015
Name - Dev Bahadur Dongol Mobile - 977 (Nepal) 9841 647 393 Land line Nepal 014253045
EMAIL: email@example.com OR firstname.lastname@example.org
You need to know basic science related to climate. They are rain cycle (functions, key factor - lifting up humid air to the height where it can condense to droplets, heated land surface not evaporation from sea surface etc, the most effective cooling system of nature) fluid property, green house, green house effect, trapping heat, 3 methods of heat transmission, physical properties of climatic atmosphere (stratosphere) etc. If you know them, you will have no problem to realize that GHE due to gases is impossible and that GHG idea is fake or metaphorical.
COPY AND STUDY IN YOUR OWN TIME
The CREATOR has not made gases for GHE to warm the earth. They are great coolant of one of many cooling systems of the nature. Gases are freely moving molecules. So, they can’t form ‘green house’. Only solid materials can be fixed to make four walls. Solid transparent materials like plastics and glasses are used to make green houses, so that the sunlight goes though to heat inside the green houses. So GHG idea is not analogy but metaphorical, ridiculous, fake, imaginary, spurious and greatest fraud in the history of science. Gases are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission all the time and man has no control over the process. Therefore, don’t blame gases for GHE.
Green House (examples)
We can reduce the use of fossil fuel to almost zero percent for electricity by making correction in the hydropower engineering.
(Details in the following post include- Part I about climate science with explanation of the cause of Climate Change and Part II – solution to Power Crisis ).
COPY AND STUDY IN YOUR OWN TIME
CC or GW due to gases is ridiculous. gases are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission. Part I CC due to gases is impossible and Part II solution to power crisis.
I. I. CLIMATE SCIENCE Key factor in climate system of Nature is Rain cycle, not gases. The best mitigation due to CC is to stop it or control it. We can control climate or present climate change is reversible.
(B3) CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY, WATER AND FOOD PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED SIMULTANEOUSLY and almost immediately. WE DON'T NEED FOSSIL FUEL OR BUCLEAR FOR ELECTRICITY. WE HAVE UNLIMITED HYDROPOWER AND WIND POWER.
CC IS MANMADE BUT NOT DUE TO GASES. Gases are not manmade. Urbanization, deforestation, dry land expansion and deserts expansion etc. are manmade. DRIER the land surface, the hotter it is and more it is moist, the cooler it is. Thus, the atmosphere is cooler or hotter depends how much of the land surface is moist or dry.
Updated from time to time, the following list includes only the established known science and facts. No point is my opinion or assumption as GHG / GHE due to gases is imaginary. So if anybody could find any point wrong, I will be very much thankful. Hereby, I also request to state meaningful science instead of meaningless comments.
(Dev - Retired science teacher educator; earned Ph.D. from Nottingham University (1986), NG7 2RD England, UK, for developing a training program for science teacher –"Radicalization of science education in Nepal." – development of an innovation, a study in education technology.)
A. GHG / GHE idea is ridiculous fake science. Worst, disgusting, embarrassing fraud in the history of science.
1. Green house. It requires solid transparent materials to form a green house.
2. GASES are freely moving molecules.
3. Gases can't form green house.
4. They can't be fixed to make walls / roof of a structure like 'green house'.
5. All matter / gases in Nature can hold Heat, so they can absorb heat like any gas e.g. CO2.
6. Convection method of heat transmission. Heat is always transmitted from higher to lower temperature.
7. O2 is 700 (21/.03) times more than CO2. Corrected to be exact 553 (21/.038) Thanks to Rafikiy.
8. N2 is 2600 times more than CO2. Corrected to be exact 2053 (78/.038) Thanks to Rafikiy.
9. CO2 is not a pollutant. We carry the gas in our blood since birth and live throughout the life with the gas.
10. Plants use the gas to prepare food. Then, HOW CAN THE GAS BE A POLLUTANT?
11. If GW were due to 'green house effect" (GHE), the upper layer of the Troposphere (our climatic atmosphere) should be warmer than the flat land areas because warm air goes up. So the top of the MT. Everest should be hot zone. The earth would have never been colder than the beginning 4 billion years ago.
12. Our atmosphere is not closed like a green house but open to space.
13. Our climatic atmosphere (Troposphere) should be always warm as the Sun always shines on the half of the Earth
14. It wouldn't be cold during night (after the sun set and before the sun rise).
15. Minimum temperature is recorded about half an hour earlier than the sun rise.
16. We know it is always colder during night than during sunny days.
17. REFLECTION: gases don't reflect. They are transparent. Light pass through too small particles. Earth is seen from space (photo under 12)
18. Materials become opaque when they reflect light.
19. Every molecule radiates absorbed heat when the surrounding is colder. It absorbs heat when the surrounding is hotter. All objects at a place try to equalize temperature.
20. Foggy, smoggy, and cloudy days are colder than bright sunny days.
21. Gases are not layered in the Troposphere; it is a homogenous mixture of gases. If it were layered the heaviest gas, CO2 would be at the bottom not on top. Then animals wouldn't survive. We need O2 to be alive.
22. Gases of atmosphere should be still (no breeze, no wind) to be layered. Breezes, winds, hurricane, tornadoes, convection current or any motion thoroughly mixes all the gases.
23. Molecules of fluids move upwards when heated and downwards when cooled – the convection current.
24. CO2 is transparent, colorless, odorless, and heaviest gas of the atmosphere. It does not make shadow as clouds do.
25. If something does not allow going out means does not allow getting in as well. GHE applies only with the solid transparent materials like glasses and plastics not for the fluids (gases and liquids).
26. Methane is negligible, only traces.
27. Insulation traps heat partly. Gases alone can't trap heat. Gases can't work as an insulator in the open space. Our atmosphere is not insulating the earth. it should be air tight for effective insulation. The clothes we put on, the four walls and roofs etc. work as insulator, lesser the passage for air to pass through in and out the more effective is the insulation.
# Physical properties of fluids (gases and liquids) and atmosphere don't support them on GHG idea at all scientifically. GHG / GHE idea is metaphorical/ fake.
B.1 Causes of CC (Just because you (NASA and IPCC) did not know or could not explain the cause of CC you are creating fake, imaginary, false, spurious and so on science to mislead the world. GW is not the problem but water. Here is the explanation for the cause of the CC.
I challenge all the scientific institutions / organizations especially NASA and IPCC that support GHG / GHE idea to prove my scientific analysis is wrong.
CC due to gases is impossible instead they are helping the earth to cool down by convection method of heat transmission.) So they don't have proofs. My Scientific analysis is 100% proof.
So gases are not responsible for global warming but cooling the earth.
B2. Mistaken Reason for CC - The main reason for global warming is due to the mistake done by human being for explaining the rain cycle wrong way that it occurs by the evaporation of the sea water. If it were so, now-a-days we should have rains more often than in the old days – global warming and expansion of the sea surface, both are favorable for evaporation needed for rain cycle. Sea surface temperature (average 15C) is not hot enough to lift water vapour to form cloud needed for the rain cycle. If that is possible we will have rains all the time, (even during winter we have that temperature in Nepal on the average). Water vapour evaporated from the sea surface must come over land to get lifted as the land surface gets heated by the sun and air moves upward as air current. We are making more and more land areas drier and drier by urbanization - covering land by concretes, black top roads, deforestation, and expanding deserts. So evaporation from the land areas is decreasing, as a result cooling of the land areas is decreasing significantly. Land areas are hotter than sea surface temperature.
B3. We can control climate or present climate change is reversible - Just by determining how much land surface area of the earth to keep moist. More the land surface moist, the more is rain cycle and cooler earth surface. I shall be grateful to you if you could go through my blog for details and share with your friends.
WE MAY NEED LOTS OF POWER TO PUMP WATER FROM RIVERS OR OTHER SOURCES. SECTION II SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS SHOWS WAYS TO HARNESS LIMITLESS HYDROPOWER
C. Ozone depletion is not possible Ozone as such can't exist as a layer. It is extremely unstable and heavier than O2. It breaks into oxygen atoms as soon as it forms (if not kept pressurized in a closed container).It is formed when oxygen molecules breaks into atoms with heat of high temperature (UV). Stratosphere is tremendously cold zone and extremely low pressure. Ozone formed breaks down into oxygen atoms as soon as it forms and releases heat. Even at sea level at NTP ozone is unstable. So ozone layer exists only in theory. Intermittently forming of ozone will continue until the oxygen is in the atmosphere and we receive UV from the sun. So ozone depletion is not possible. Ozone formation is a step to return heat back to space. It is not ozone that blocks heat but O2 and in the process O3 is formed to release the heat absorbed by O2.
D. Don't blame CFC (too scarce and too heavy to reach the stratosphere) for thinning stratosphere. In reality, Millions of jet flights everyday are consuming too much of oxygen of the layer. Copy my list, go to NASA / IPCC and tell them about my challenge. Or, at least talk to your elementary sc. teacher to find out true sc. I will reward you for your efforts.
Thus Present CC is reversible and we can control climate.
II. SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS: RUNNING TURBINES IN SERIES:
HYDROPOWER - CHEAPEST POSSIBLE WAY
1. It is possible to uniformly run turbines in series.
SOLUTION TO POWER CRISIS:
NO THERMAL, ONLY HYDRO CHAPEST POSSIBLE
A uniform flowing water column can evenly run any number of turbines that are made appropriately and are installed by series principle in between its intake and discharge points.
Because water continues flowing consistently even after rotating turbines with the same velocity, there is no change in the flow of water before and after turning turbines; it means turbines don’t decrease the power of running water.
And, because water flows down due to the pulling force of Gravity which is a constant factor, no matter how much mass we drop, the power of steadily running water also remains constant.
II seconnd ABSTRACT – HYDRO TURBINES IN SERIESIn accordance with Pascal Law (Hydraulic Press), Multiple Pulleys and First Class Lever to lift loads; and Falling Bodies, any number of turbines installed by series principle can uniformly run along a single flowing water column (Pen stock Pipe).
Water flows with uniform velocity throughout running water column. So, there is no change in the rate of discharged water before and after running turbines.
That means running turbines don’t decrease the power of flowing water column.
That is because Force of Gravity runs water. G-force is a constant factor at a given point, no matter how much falling bodies are involved. The force of gravity can’t be reduced, nor blocked, nor shifted from a given point.
BLUNDER IN HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING: CORRECTION MEANS END OF POWER CRISIS.
Turbines in practice at present are not made for series installation. They need modification so that they can be installed by applying series principle.
(concise water meters to apply to) Scroll down to older posts for VIDEO CLIPS
If we make correction of the mistake there has been on hydropower engineering we wouldn't need any other sources of power at all. The cleanliest power will be available by cheapest possible way we can think of. Please avoid the most dangerous power source. At present we are tapping only minimum hydropower by applying the principle of still water column that it exerts highest pressure at the bottom, so we run only one turbine at the bottom of the running water column.
The property applies in standing still water column only . It is a blunder in hydropower engineering. In hydropower we have the running water condition. The pressure effect in a running water column is uniform through out, from intake to discharge points. Considering the properties of uniformly running water column, it is possible to run many turbines in series along a single uniform penstock pipe.
We have to keep water running consistently to maintain constant revolution of the turbines. Uniformly running water column has uniform velocity and pressure throughout, from intake to the discharge points (Bernoulli Theory). So we can install turbines at any position of the running water column. And, by maintaining uniformity of the water column before, through and after the installed turbine, the velocity of the water column can be maintained constant. Turbines rotate with the same velocity as running water column. So there is no change in the velocity of water after running a turbine(s). Therefore the turbines don't decrease the power of running water.
So we can install as many turbines in series along a single uniform penstock pipe as space allows. Application of the properties of uniformly running water column can open the door for unlimited hydropower. Only limitation is the space required for placing turbines. This method not only can end the power crisis but will also help to reverse the present climate change as the power will be available to pump water from rivers as much as we need to keep the land surface always moist, recharge ground water, boost rain cycle and eventually reduce sea level rise.
So we must consider the principle of running water column for installing turbines. Applying the property of standing still water column to a running water condition has been a blunder in hydropower engineering.
Considering the fluid properties of water (pressure is exerted equally in all direction) and the nature of gravitational force (at a given point never reduced nor blocked nor shifted) multiple turbines can be installed in series along only one water running pipe. The turbines don’t decrease the power of running water, because the turbine rotates with the same velocity as the running water.
DEMONSTRATION Water meter is a good example of miniature turbine. Many water meters can be connected along the same UNIFORM water supplying pipe in series and run all of them uniformly.
(please scroll down for demo video clips in my blog)
THUS IT IS POSSIBLE TO HARNESS many folds (limitless) more hydropower than done by present practice. Engineering works has to be developed differently so that the running water column is uniform before the turbine, inside the turbine and after the turbine. Hydro power can be installed without reservoir / by runoff type, but making lakes as much as possible will hold water in and on land - will be eco friendly, cool climate, aquatic life, lower sea level rise, water sports, transports, greenery, enhance rain cycle, make water easily available in the nooks and corners etc. From the reservoirs we can install turbines as run off type water supply.
NAMING 'HYDROPOWER' IS ITSELF WRONG. IT IS NOT POWERED BY HYDRO BUT 'G'. WATER IS USED AS A TOOL TO CAPTURE 'G' FORCE. SO IT SHOULD BE ADDRESSED G-POWERED ELECTRICITY. ANOTHER FLUID IF THERE WERE AVAILABLE ABUNDANTLY COULD ALSO BE USED INSTEAD OF WATER
. Retired science teacher educator; earned Ph.D. from Nottingham University (1986) England, UK, for developing a training program for science teacher –"Radicalization of science education in Nepal." – development of an innovation, a study in education technology. EMAIL : email@example.com Mobile: 977 9841 647 393